The Baal Shem Tov's 300th Birthday
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Maimonides, Principles of the Faith, No. 12
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We are pleased to present, to the visually impaired and the blind, our weekly publication, Living With Moshiach.
In this issue we focus on Chai Elul, the 18th of Elul (Wednesday, September 9).
This year's Chai Elul marks the 300th anniversary of the birth of the Baal Shem Tov, and the 253rd anniversary of the birthday of the Alter Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi.
We take this opportunity to wish you and yours a very sweet, happy, healthy and successful new year.
This Jewish year, is the year 5758 since Creation. The Hebrew letters are Hei-Taf-Shin-Nun-Ches. Over a decade ago, in the year 5742, the Rebbe stated that the Hebrew letters for that year were an acronym for "This should be the year of the coming of Moshiach."
Since that time, the Rebbe has publicized a phrase describing the year according to the acronym of its Hebrew letters. This year has been designated by the Rebbe's followers as "Hoyo Tihei Shnas Niflaos Cheiruseinu" meaning "It surely will be a year of wondrous miracles liberating us (from the material and spiritual problems of our exile)."
Our sincere appreciation to L'Chaim weekly publication, published by the Lubavitch Youth Organization, for allowing us to use their material.
Also, many thanks to our copy editor, Reb Mordechai Staiman, for his tireless efforts.
It is our fervent hope that our learning about Moshiach and the Redemption will hasten the coming of Moshiach, NOW!
Rabbi Yosef Y. Shagalov,
Committee for the Blind
11 Elul, 5758
Brooklyn, New York
This week's Torah portion, Ki Tavo, contains the commandment of bikurim, first fruits. "And it shall be, when you come into the land...and you shall take of all the fruit of the earth...and put it in a basket...and you shall go to the priest...and the priest shall take the basket from your hand, and set it down before the altar of the L-rd your G-d."
The mitzvah of first fruits applies only to the "seven kinds by which the land of Israel is praised"--grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, dates, wheat and barley. Whoever cultivated these special fruits on his portion of land was obligated to bring the very first of his harvest to G-d's representative on earth--the priest who served in the Holy Temple--thereby thanking G-d for His bounty and joyfully acknowledging the Creator of all things.
A mitzvah may be performed in one of two ways: with a minimum of involvement and effort, merely in order to fulfill the requirement, or out of a sense of love and joy, demonstrated by one's desire to observe the mitzvah in the most beautiful way possible, utilizing the very best of whatever one possesses.
This principle is best expressed in the mitzvah of bikurim, for which the farmer must go against his natural inclination to retain for himself the very best of the fruits of his labor, and hand them over to the priest in Jerusalem.
As we stand now on the very threshold of the messianic era, when we will once again be obligated to perform this mitzvah, it is fitting that we prepare ourselves for its renewed observance, at least in the spiritual sense. How? By thinking of ourselves as the "first fruit" of G-d: every action we take, every thought we have and every word that comes out of our mouths must be not only "for the sake of Heaven," but also must be our absolute best, the most choice and select we are capable of producing.
Furthermore, this principle should be applied not only to the realm of religious observance, but to the myriad details of our everyday, mundane lives, elevating even our business transactions to the level of "first fruits," as our Sages said, "All of your deeds should be for the sake of Heaven."
Until Moshiach comes, when we will be able to perform the mitzvah of first fruits in the physical sense, every Jew must picture himself at all times as if he is standing in the Holy Temple, about to hand over his basket of offerings to the priest.
May our efforts to refine ourselves in this manner bring the Final Redemption speedily in our day, and with it, the opportunity to observe the mitzvah of bikurim in the literal sense as well.
The Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, issued a call that "The time of our Redemption has arrived!" and "Moshiach is on his way!"
The Rebbe stressed that he is saying this as a prophecy, and asks us all to prepare ourselves for the Redemption, through increasing acts of goodness and kindness.
Let us all heed the Rebbe's call.
13th of Elul, 5731/1971
To the Administration of Chabad House
Buffalo, N. Y.
I was gratified to be informed about the forthcoming dedication of a Sefer Torah [Torah Scroll] in the Chabad House, which will take place on the auspicious day of the 18th of Elul, the birthday of the founder of general Chasidus, the Baal Shem Tov, and the birthday also of the founder of Chabad Chasidus, the Alter Rebbe [Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi], author of the Tanya and Shulchan Aruch.
Needless to say, the observance of this double birthday has the central purpose that their way of life, work and teachings should continue to illuminate the daily life of each and every one of us. Both the Baal Shem Tov and the Alter Rebbe, who expanded the Chasidic teachings in a systematic way, brought the Chasidic experience to Jews of all backgrounds, made the embodiment of the three loves, love of G-d, love of the Torah and love of Israel, the cornerstone of their system, with emphasis on the fact that the said three loves are completely interlocked and integrated.
This system and way of life quickly began to spread and gain many followers, in an ever-growing measure in quantity and quality, from generation to generation to the present day, which has clearly demonstrated how viable and vital it has been for the Jewish people, for the individual as well as for Klal Yisroel [the entire Jewish people].
I have used the expression "illuminated" advisedly, since this does not necessarily mean the creation of new things, but to illuminate existing things which have not been fully appreciated, or which have been altogether overlooked. Thus, the primary contribution of Chasidus is that it illuminates the Torah and Mitzvos, and their inner aspects, Pnimius HaTorah, and shows each and every one of us the way to bring them within our personal daily experience.
The above is particularly important in relation to the young generation, who are still at the threshold of independent life and have untapped resources of energy and dedication to face any challenge, to accept the truth and nothing but the whole truth, rejecting all compromise - in their search for the genuine article.
As for the teacher and mentor, while he must do his best to help those whom he teaches and guides to make the utmost progress, he also reckons with the capacity of the students. However, since it is the task of each and every Jew to follow the Torah way of life, with dedication and inspiration, as illuminated by the teachings of Chasidus, it is clear that this task, which has been given to every Jew as a duty and privilege by G-d, the Creator and Master of the world, is within the capacity of each and everyone, since G-d does not expect the impossible.
May G-d grant that the dedication of the Sefer Torah in the Chabad House should symbolize the dedication of the Sefer Torah in each and every Jewish home in the community, and strengthen adherence of the Torah and Mitzvos in the daily life, not only on special occasions or special days, but in accordance with the well-known commandment in the Shema--"And you shall teach them diligently to your children, and speak them, when you sit in the house or when you walk in the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise up."
I send my prayerful wishes to each and every one who is associated with the work of the Chabad House, for Hatzlocho [success] in all above, and in a growing measure and, with the approach of the New Year, to be blessed with a Kesivo Vachasimo Tova [to be inscribed and sealed for good], for a good and pleasant year materially and spiritually.
Chai Elul, the 18th of Elul (Wednesday, September 9), is the 300th birthday of Rabbi Yisrael Baal Shem Tov, the founder of the Chasidic movement. It is also the 253rd birthday of the Alter Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, one of the foremost disciples of the Baal Shem Tov's successor and the founder of Chabad Chasidism.
One of the main teachings of the Baal Shem Tov was to always remember G-d and to thank Him frequently.
The obligation to remember G-d constantly and thank Him begins as soon as a Jew wakes up in the morning. Before he does anything else, he says "Modeh Ani--I offer thanks to You, Living and Eternal King, for You have mercifully restored my soul within me; Your faithfulness is great."
The lesson of Modeh Ani, that everything we have comes from G-d and we must constantly thank Him, is connected to another important teaching of the Baal Shem Tov: G-d did not just create the world once [5758 years ago]. He constantly recreates everything anew at every moment, and gives it new life.
The purpose of this "continual creation" is to allow us to appreciate G-d's kindness. At this very moment, G-d has "taken the trouble," so to speak, to re-create each of us. When we realize that G-d is giving us life and everything we have at every moment, we will want to constantly thank Him.
The above teachings have a special connection not only to the Baal Shem Tov, but also to his birthday on the 18th of Elul. The Hebrew word "chai"--living--equals 18, and the 18th of Elul is called "Chai Elul," for it helps us add liveliness and enthusiasm to our appreciation of and feelings of thanks for our Creator.
May we merit, this very Chai Elul, to experience true and eternal life, as G-d intended it to be, with the complete revelation of Moshiach and the start of the Redemption.
by Tzvi Freeman
This year, the 18th of Elul, is the Baal Shem Tov's 300th birthday. As the Baal Shem Tov loved every Jew and had such an impact on all our lives, it is appropriate that we give him a great "birthday present." Since he wanted Jews to be ever joyful, we should make celebrations part of our gift.
Here are some suggestions:
Gift #1: Celebrate Your Fellow Jew
Unlike other greats who were concerned with a single aspect of Jews or Judaism, the Baal Shem Tov was concerned for "the whole Jew." To improve their material welfare, he convinced them to move from the cities where they had taken refuge during the Cossack Revolt and resettle the farmland. For their children, he arranged teachers to come to their homes. For their souls, he told stories and pearls of wisdom, reawakening the Divine spark within them.
The Baal Shem Tov loved to speak with any Jew. It didn't have to be about philosophy or a question of concern to the community. The Baal Shem Tov enjoyed asking, with love and sincere concern, "How is your day going? How are you managing? Is your family healthy?" When the reply was "Thank G-d!" or "The Al-mighty provides!" the Baal Shem Tov would glow with pleasure. He appreciated a Jew for being just what he was, and used it as a powerful tool to bring out the best in everyone.
So celebrate your fellow Jews. Whether poor or affluent, close or far, ask them how they're doing. If they complain, listen. If they have a problem, see what you can do about it. If they are happy, celebrate with them.
And if someone asks you about yourself, don't forget to say, "Thank G-d, the Al-mighty provides."
Gift #2: Celebrate the Children
One of the Baal Shem Tov's first directives to his inner circle was to provide teachers for the simple folk's children. He himself took a position as teacher's helper in a small town.
The Baal Shem Tov later called those days the best of his life. As he picked up the children from their homes, helping them to say the morning blessings, teaching them "Shema" and telling them stories from the Torah, he said he could feel the "great delight caused Above and the jealousy the angels must have for these holy little ones."
One of the closest disciples of the Baal Shem Tov would say that he wished he could kiss the Torah scroll with the same reverence that his Master kissed the children when he brought them to school!
So celebrate the children. Tell them about the Baal Shem Tov and about how precious he says they are. Celebrate every small mitzvah they do. And then let's all invest in them, as the Baal Shem Tov and his inner circle did. Because, as the Baal Shem Tov said, the children are the foundation of our nation.
Gift #3: Celebrate the Inner Torah
Certainly the Baal Shem Tov's most radical step was to make the inner "soul" of the Torah accessible to every Jew. His stories and pearls of wisdom are, in fact, metaphors for the most profound wisdom of the Kabbalah.
Some of his own inner circle felt that the secrets of the Torah were too precious to reveal to the masses. But the Baal Shem Tov understood this as the elixir that would revive the Jewish soul and empower us to survive.
More than that: The Baal Shem Tov was preparing the entire world for the time when "the earth will be filled with knowledge of G-d as the waters fill the sea." In a famous letter he describes how he ascended through the heavenly spheres until he reached the chamber of Moshiach and asked him, "When will you arrive?" The reply: "When the wellsprings of your wisdom spread to the outside."
So now it's up to us. The wellsprings are in our hands. Since it's a birthday party, let's celebrate them. We'll quench our thirst with them and savor them, share them and pour them out to others, let the whole world see the depth of wisdom behind the Torah and the Jewish soul.
As a result, the entire world will become one great celebration, hand in hand, heart to heart, "to know only G-dliness."
Once, when the Baal Shem Tov was about 20, he traveled with some members of his inner circle of secret tzaddikim, and they arrived at the city of Brod. As was his custom, he went directly to the market place and began to talk to the simple, common Jews. Soon he was surrounded by an enthralled circle of people, listening eagerly to his tales of great rabbis and their ways and customs.
As he was speaking, he noticed a certain Jew, a porter by trade, passing through the market place with a heavy load on his shoulders. His appearance was quite miserable. His clothes were torn, he was wearing wooden shoes, his face was wrinkled and covered with sweat. But the Baal Shem Tov saw something that others could not see, that above the man's head shone a pillar of pure, bright light!
"Hershel, carry your burden in good health," some of the assembled people called to him. Some added in a mocking tone, "Go in good health, Hershel Goat." Hershel the porter answered all with a kind expression on his face, "May you be blessed," and continued on his way.
The Baal Shem Tov thought that this Hershel surely must be a great tzaddik who did not want to reveal himself. However, none of the Baal Shem Tov's circle of secret tzaddikim had ever heard of him.
The Baal Shem Tov found out that Hershel was a widower, whose wife had passed away ten years before. He had two sons, who studied at a local yeshiva. He made a good living, but spent most of his income to feed his four goats. Everyone assumed that he must really love goat's milk. That is how he received the nickname "Hershel Goat."
Over the next few days, the Baal Shem Tov watched Hershel's activities, but could find nothing extraordinary. He earnestly longed to discover the man's secret. The Baal Shem Tov decided to fast for three consecutive days and nights, during which he prayed, begged G-d to help him uncover Hershel's secret.
On the afternoon of the third day, as he was leaving the synagogue after prayers, he met Hershel. "Reb Hershel," he appealed to him, "I would very much love a glass of warm goat's milk. I have heard that one may buy some from you."
"Come with me," he replied with a radiant face. "I will pour you a cup of fresh milk. However, I will accept no money from you, for I too would like to fulfill the mitzvah of hospitality."
They walked to the outskirts of the city. The houses there were very old, their roofs sagging almost to the ground. In one such hovel lived Hershel.
When he opened the door, he was greeted by the happy bleating of his goats, who rushed over and began to lick his hands. He took a pan and milked the goats, strained the milk, poured a cup of the warm fresh milk and handed it to his guest, the Baal Shem Tov. Hershel then told him his life story.
He spoke about his wife, of blessed memory, a woman of great kindness who dedicated herself especially to the mitzvah of ministering to the sick. "There was no sick person whom she did not assist; for each one she would get all possible help. She also helped poor women who had given birth.
"After she passed away, ten years ago, she appeared to me in my dream," he continued. "She told me how wonderful it was in the World of Truth, and how great is the merit of doing a kind deed for a Jew. When her soul ascended on High to the Heavenly Court, she was happy to recognize many people whom she knew. These were all the people whom she had helped and supported during their illnesses. They had all come to bear witness to her goodness and to plead her cause.
"After she told me how much every favor that is done for a fellow Jew is appreciated in Heaven, she suggested that I do charitable work. 'You are a simple Jew,' she said. 'You don't know how to learn Torah. Busy yourself with charity and good deeds, and especially help the sick, the poor, and women who have given birth. But you must do all this in a way that no one will know.'
"I decided to do what my wife had said: I saved every penny and bought four goats. I feed them fine food so that they will produce rich and nutritious milk. This milk I distribute to the sick and poor, to children and mothers, and G-d, Who heals all flesh, helps that the milk cures those who are sick.
"I have been doing this for many years," Hershel finished his story. "For myself, I get by with very little, and I dedicate most of my money to the maintenance of the goats and for doing good deeds."
Hershel told his guest that last night his wife had appeared to him in a dream and revealed to him that the next day he would meet a poor Jew who would request a glass of milk. "Invite him to your home and tell him about your deeds," said his wife. "Through him you will receive many blessings."
Now the Baal Shem Tov realized that because of the pure, sincere deeds of Hershel, and his goodness of heart, devotion and love of fellow Jews, he was privileged to receive the "crown of light" that accompanied him wherever he went. He joined the circle of secret tzaddikim who taught him Torah step by step. But even when he became very learned in Torah and accomplished in his studies, he didn't stop taking care of the sick and poor.
He eventually passed away unrecognized, solitary and lonely, aged about one hundred years old. But in Heaven he received a glorious welcome. The soul of the Baal Shem Tov, accompanied by the souls of the secret tzaddikim, and the souls of all the people whom he had helped, all came to greet the soul of the holy man once known in Brod as "Hershel Goat."
The year before the birth of the Alter Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founder of the Chabad Chasidic movement, the Baal Shem Tov knew that a new and unblemished soul that had never yet been on earth was soon to descend to this world. But he did not know who would be privileged to be its parents.
Rabbi Shneur Zalman's father, the saintly Reb Baruch, was one of the Baal Shem Tov's circle of secret tzaddikim. But no one knew of Reb Baruch's saintliness except his wife, Rebbetzin Rivka.
A year after their marriage, when they had not yet been blessed with a child, Reb Baruch and Rebbetzin Rivka set out during the month of Elul to Mezibuzh to visit the Baal Shem Tov in order to ask for his blessing.
Every year it was the Baal Shem Tov's custom to celebrate his birthday, which was on the 18th of Elul. At the festive meal on that auspicious day, the tzaddik blessed them and promised that, exactly a year later, they would become the parents of a healthy son. After receiving the Baal Shem Tov's blessing, the young couple remained in Mezibuzh for the High Holidays.
The fact that this child would have the new soul destined to descend that year was hidden even from the Baal Shem Tov.
On Rosh HaShanah of that year, the disciples of the Baal Shem Tov observed a marked difference from his accustomed mode of Divine service. The conclusion of Yom Kippur that year found the Baal Shem Tov in a special state of holy elation, which remained with him until after Simchat Torah. His disciples understood that something wonderful must have transpired that holiday month, something that had brought him such joy that he had changed from his usual mode of Divine service during the Days of Awe, for now joy was its dominant theme. But eager as they were to discover the reason for this joy, they were left disappointed.
Before Reb Baruch and Rebbetzin Rivka left Mezibuzh, they were privileged to have an audience with the Baal Shem Tov once again, to receive his farewell blessings. When the Baal Shem Tov repeated his blessing, Rebbetzin Rivka, bestirred by spiritual emotion, fervently promised the tzaddik that when the Al-mighty fulfilled his blessing and granted her a healthy son, she would consecrate her son to the dissemination of Torah and the Chasidic way of life as taught by the Baal Shem Tov.
Seeing their state of spiritual arousal, the Baal Shem Tov gave them his blessing, and they left town with glad hearts.
Rebbetzin Rivka was quite a learned women and decided to intensify her Torah studies. She asked Devora Leah, her learned sister-in-law, for guidance concerning prayer and study during her anticipated pregnancy.
Six months later, Reb Baruch went to Mezibuzh again to inform the Baal Shem Tov that his wife was pregnant. The Baal Shem Tov wished him "Mazel Tov" and gave him certain instructions to convey to his wife. Reb Baruch left for home in a happy mood.
Wednesday morning, on the 18th of Elul 5505/1745, found the Baal Shem Tov in a special state of holy elation. His disciples were mystified, but none of them ventured to breathe a question, realizing that this must be a uniquely festive day.
He invited them to share his visible joy at a festive meal, at which he said: "Today ... a new soul descended to earth, a soul that will illuminate the world with the revealed and esoteric teachings of the Torah through Chasidus. It will endure self-sacrifice for the sake of the spiritual path of Chasidus and will succeed in its mission, preparing the way for the arrival of Moshiach."
On the 25th of Elul, the Baal Shem Tov arranged a feast. Three days later, on Shabbat, he once again was in an extremely elated frame of mind. All of this was a mystery to his disciples.
What the Baal Shem Tov's disciples witnessed in those days was nothing less than their Rebbe celebrating the birth of Reb Baruch and Rebbetzin Rivka's first child, Shneur Zalman, his Bris (circumcision), and the critical third day after the circumcision. Moreover, the various discourses that the Baal Shem Tov delivered on those occasions were connected with the newborn's destiny.
For Yom Kippur, 5506/1745, Reb Baruch came to the Baal Shem Tov. When he was privileged to have an audience with him, the tzaddik warned him to tell no one that he had had a son, nor tell anyone the child's name.
Later, when Reb Baruch was about to leave for home, he was once again privileged to have an audience with the Baal Shem Tov, who gave him detailed instructions concerning the child, including that a careful watch be kept over him at all times.
The tzaddik also warned him solemnly that the child should be kept out of public view, especially out of view of the local gossips.
Three times a day, the Baal Shem Tov mentioned the newborn child in his prayers.
The following year, Reb Baruch came, as usual, to the Baal Shem Tov for the High Holidays. The Baal Shem Tov inquired about the little boy in great detail, and repeated his admonition to take special care of the child.
After Sukkot, when Reb Baruch was ready to leave for home, the Baal Shem Tov again counseled him to shelter the boy, and not to boast about his cleverness nor even to repeat any ingenious comments Shneur Zalman might make.
Another year passed. Once again Reb Baruch made his annual pilgrimage to Mezibuzh. Reb Baruch reported to the Baal Shem Tov that, upon returning home from Mezibuzh after Sukkot the previous year, his wife told him that there was a noticeable change in Shneur Zalman. His speech and vocabulary, which were already extraordinary, had considerably improved. They discovered that the young child had an amazing memory, and whatever he heard once, he never forgot.
The Baal Shem Tov gave Reb Baruch further instructions concerning the child. Reb Baruch requested permission to bring Shneur Zalman to the Baal Shem Tov on his third birthday for the traditional first haircut(1) and the Baal Shem Tov agreed. He told Reb Baruch that Shneur Zalman should be brought by his mother and his aunt Devora Leah, on the 18th of Elul, after the morning prayers.
Arriving home, Reb Baruch found that his son had made further strides during his absence from home. Little Shneur Zalman could now recite many Psalms by heart, and his memory and mental grasp were astonishing.
As arranged, Rebbetzin Rivka and her sister-in-law Devora Leah brought Shneur Zalman to the Baal Shem Tov in Mezibuzh, for the child's third birthday, when it is customary to give him his first haircut.
As soon as the Baal Shem Tov had given the child his first training in leaving his peyot (sideburns) uncut and had given him his blessing, he urged them to leave immediately and not to discuss between themselves where they had been. Finally, he wished them a good year and a safe journey home.
All the way home, little Shneur Zalman kept asking his mother: who was the elderly Jew who had cut his hair to leave his peyot, and had given him his blessing.
"That was Zaide (grandfather)," was her reply.
Little did he then know that some day he would come to regard the Baal Shem Tov as his "grandfather" in a spiritual sense, for he was the Rebbe of his Rebbe, the Maggid of Mezeritch.
The Baal Shem Tov, however, for reasons best known to himself, kept himself from direct contact with Shneur Zalman. He did not permit Reb Baruch to bring his son with him on subsequent visits to Mezibuzh and he warned Shneur Zalman's teacher not to tell him anything about the Baal Shem Tov until he reached a latter age. "Shneur Zalman is not destined to be my disciple," the Baal Shem Tov said. "He belongs to my successor."
1. It is a widespread custom that a Jewish boy receives his first haircut on or soon after his third birthday. Leaving his sideburns (peyot) teaches the child the mitzvah of "You shall not round the corners of your head." After his first haircut, (opshernish in Yiddish), he formally begins his Jewish education.
The Rebbe's slogan is: "The main thing is the deed." We therefore present from the Rebbe's talks suggestions what we can do to complete his work of bringing the Redemption.
Preparations for the High Holidays:
"Our Sages state that thirty days before a holiday, we should learn the laws pertaining to it.
"It is already less than thirty days before the holidays of Tishrei begin and in this context, it is necessary to mention the importance of providing Jews with their holiday needs so that they will be able to celebrate Rosh HaShanah and the holidays that follow in the manner stated in the Bible, 'Eat sumptuous foods and drink sweet beverages and send portions to those who do not have them prepared.'"
The Rebbe, Elul, 5750/1990
Saturday evening, Sept. 12, after midnight, the first Selichot ("prayers for forgiveness") are said in synagogues throughout the world.
From Monday, Sept. 14, through the eve of Rosh HaShanah, the Selichot prayers are said every weekday, in the early morning. Go with the whole family Saturday night, let the kids stay up late! This is a real, hands-on Jewish experience that is bound to be remembered for months, if not years.
Call your local synagogue, or Chabad-Lubavitch Center for the exact time and location nearest you.
Jewish Women and Girls Light Shabbat Candles
For local candle lighting times:
consult your local Rabbi, Chabad-Lubavitch Center, or call: (718) 774-3000.
For a free candle lighting kit:
contact your local Chabad-Lubavitch Center.
For a listing of the Centers in your area:
In the USA, call: 1-800-Lubavitch (1-800-582-2848).
Friday, September 11, Erev Shabbat Parshat Tavo:
Saturday, September 12, Shabbat Parshat Tavo:
2. The Shabbat candles must be lit 18 minutes before sunset. It is prohibited and is a desecration of the Shabbat to light the candles after sunset.
Laws of Shabbat Candle Lighting for the Blind
Shabbat Candle Lighting Blessing
"Let There Be Light" - The Jewish Women's Guide to Lighting Shabbat Candles.
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